Wednesday, March 14, 2012

Symptoms of Hyperglycemia

Symptoms of Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) overview

Hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose (sugar), is a serious health problem for those with diabetes. Hyperglycemia develops when there is too much sugar in the blood. In people with diabetes, there are two specific types of hyperglycemia that occur:

  • Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as a blood sugar greater than 90-130 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) after fasting for at least 8 hours. 
  • Postprandial or after-meal hyperglycemia is defined as a blood sugar usually greater than 180 mg/dL. In people without diabetes postprandial or post-meal sugars rarely go over 140 mg/dL but occasionally, after a large meal, a 1-2 hour post-meal glucose level can reach 180 mg/dL. Consistently elevated high post-meal glucose levels can be an indicator that a person is at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes 
When a person with diabetes has hyperglycemia frequently or for long periods of time as indicated by a high HbA1c blood test, damage to nerves, blood vessels and other body organs can occur. Hyperglycemia can also lead to more serious conditions, including ketoacidosis -- mostly in people with type 1 diabetes -- and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) in people with type 2 diabetes or in people at risk for type 2 diabetes.
It's important to treat the symptoms of hyperglycemia promptly to prevent complications from diabetes.

More: Sugary Drinks leads to Heart Disease in Men

Hyperglycemia Classical Signs and Symptoms

Following are some of the common signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia:

•    Increased Urination

In people with high blood glucose level, automatically the body identifies it and seeks to clear the surplus levels via blood filtering with the help of kidneys. After that, this blood is thrown out as urine from the body. When a person goes to bathroom more times than normal and excrete some extra volume of urine then he/she might be hypoglycemic.
•    Continuous Hunger

When a kid undergoes hyperglycemia symptoms, he/she would experience hungry over and over. The reason behind that is an ordinary meal is not capable to entirely use the undue high blood glucose level inside his/her body. So hypoglycemic people feel less energetic and thus his/her body rouses the sensation of hunger.
•    Increased Thirst

As the hypoglycemic body releases too much amount of urine a hypoglycemic person would feel thirstier. This is because body tries to maintain the usual fluid level in it. So that when a hypoglycemic person suffers from hyperglycemia symptoms, he/she will be consuming extra water than normal.
•    Blurred Vision

Blurred vision is the next syndrome which has been enlisted in hyperglycemia symptoms. When the human body notices high blood glucose level, it seeks to throw it or flush it out. Fluid from the body can also be released via eyes. So that in order to free surplus sugar from the blood, a hypoglycemic person may cause a syndrome of double or blurred vision.
•    Dryness in the Mouth

One more indication of hyperglycemia is mouth dryness. This comes about when excess urination due to high blood glucose level results in less fluid levels. So that it makes dryness in the mouth of hypoglycemic people.
•    Weakness

A hypoglycemic people feels too much weakness because his/her body is incapable to utilize the high level of glucose in the blood. Surely, this makes hypoglycemic people experience more tired and less energetic. People suffering from hyperglycemia tend to sleep extra than normal or they take more than a few naps during a day.
•    Sudden Weight Loss

Some of hypoglycemic people may also go through sudden weight loss. This occurs since the body of hypoglycemic people is incapable to make use of the too much glucose in the blood. Consequently, the body in order begins to burn the extra fat to provide the necessary power levels.

Lifestyle Modification for Hyperglycemia


Fortunately, controlling blood sugar levels by changing diet can also cut your risk of complications. People with type 2 diabetes should carefully monitor carbohydrate consumption, as well as total fat and protein intake, and reduce calories. Ask your doctor for a referral to a registered dietitian to help you with healthy choices and an eating plan that will work for you.


Routine exercise, such as strength training or walking, improves the body's use of insulin and can lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Being active also helps reduce body fat, lower blood pressure, and protect against heart disease. People with type 2 diabetes should try to get 30 minutes of moderate exercise on most days of the week.

Stress Reduction

Stress can cause blood pressure to rise. It can also increase glucose levels in your blood as part of your "fight or flight" response. Or you may turn to food to cope with stress. All are bad when living with diabetes. Instead of letting stress take its toll, try practicing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, or visualization. Sometimes talking to a friend, family member, counselor, or member of the clergy can help. If you're still battling stress, reach out to your doctor.

Oral Medication

When people with type 2 diabetes are unable to control blood sugar sufficiently with diet and exercise, medication may be added. There are many types of diabetes pills available, and they are often used in combination. Some work by stimulating the pancreas to make more insulin, and others improve the effectiveness of insulin, or block the digestion of starches.


Your doctor may prescribe insulin early on in your treatment and in combination with pills. Insulin is also used in people with type 2 diabetes who develop "beta-cell failure." This means the cells in the pancreas no longer produce insulin in response to high blood sugar levels. In this case, insulin therapy -- injections or an insulin pump -- must become part of the daily routine.

Non-Insulin Injectables

New drugs are available for people with type 2 diabetes. Pramlintide (Symlin), exenatide (Byetta), and liraglutide (Victoza) are non-insulin injectable drugs. Whereas insulin pulls glucose into the cells, these medications cause the body to release insulin to control blood sugar levels.

Long Term Damage of Hyperglycemia


Over time, untreated type 2 diabetes can damage many of the body's systems. About two out of three people with diabetes die of heart disease. Having diabetes also puts you at a two to four times higher risk for stroke. People with diabetes are likely to develop plaque in their arteries, reducing blood flow and increasing risk of clots. This hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) raises the risk of heart attack and stroke.


The longer you have diabetes, the greater the risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, accounting for 44% of new cases in 2008. Controlling risk factors such as uncontrolled diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol reduces your risk of developing this complication. Annual screening for kidney disease and medications, which slow the development and progression of kidney disease, are used to reduce your risk of kidney failure.


High blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the retina, a critical part of the eye. This is known as diabetic retinopathy, and it can cause progressive, irreversible vision loss. It is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in people between the ages of 20 and 74. Pools of blood, or hemorrhages, on the retina of an eye are visible in this image.

Nerve Pain

Over time, uncontrolled diabetes and elevated blood sugars create a very real risk for nerve damage. Symptoms can include tingling, numbness, pain, and a pins and needles sensation -- often in the fingers, hands, toes, or feet. The damage is not reversible, but treatments can help with the pain and numbness. And controlling your diabetes can help prevent further damage.

Diabetic nerve damage can make it difficult to feel your feet and detect injury. At the same time, hardening of the arteries results in poor blood flow to the feet. Foot sores and gangrene can occur, even from small injury. In severe cases, infections can go unchecked and result in an amputation.

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